Below is a list of journal studies, books, websites, magazine articles, blogs, and other resources that support the notion of the foot's inherent structrual integrity and associated natural and injury-free gait. They additionally illustrate the benefits of being barefoot and/or using minimalist footwear, as well as injuries associated with conventional footwear use. Specific medical conditions, such as bunions, plantar fasciosis(-itis), and knee osteoarthristis are also addressed, exploring non-conventional etiologies and treatment strategies. These resources, along with our clinical and personal experience, provide much of the foundation for our conservative, non-invasive treatment methods.
Studies & Journal Articles
- William A. Rossi, DPM. “Why Shoes Make ‘Normal’ Gait Impossible.” Podiatry Management. Mar 1999.
- William A. Rossi, DPM. “Footwear: The Primary Cause of Foot Disorders.” Podiatry Management. Feb 2001.
- William A. Rossi, DPM. “Children’s Footwear: Launching Site for Adult Foot Ills.” Podiatry Management. Oct 2002.
- William A. Rossi, DPM. “Fashion and Foot Deformation.” Podiatry Management. Oct 2001.
- Dr. Reed Ferber. "Research to Help Runners Determine the Correct Shoe." Running Injury Clinic. Mar 2014.
- Dr. Daniel Theisen, et. al. "Influence of midsole hardness of standard cushioned shoes on running-related injury risk." British Journal of Sports Medicine. Sep 2013.
- Daniel P. Perl, et. al. "Effects of Footwear and Strike Type on Running Economy." Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. Dec 2011.
- R. Csapo, et. al. "On Muscle, Tendon and High Heels." Journal of Experimental Biology. Aug 2010.
- Dr. Craig Richards, et. al. “Is Your Prescription of Distance Running Shoes Evidence-Based?” British Journal of Sports Medicine. Apr 2008.
- Glenn Ingram, Jr., ND and Ray McClanahan, DPM. “Treatment of Plantar Fasciosis.” Naturopathic Doctor News & Review. March 2007.
- Bertrand Mafart. “Hallux Valgus in a Historical French Population: Paleopathological Study of 605 First Metatarsal Bones.” Joint Bone Spine. Feb 2007.
- Najia Shakoor and Joel A. Block. “Walking Barefoot Decreases Loading on the Lower Extremity Joints in Knee Osteoarthritis.” Arthritis & Rheumatism. Sep 2006
- S.A. Mays. “Paleopathological Study of Hallux Valgus.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2005.
- Harvey Lemont, DPM, et. al. “Plantar Fascitis: A Degenerative Process (Fasciosis) Without Inflammation.” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. May 2003.
- Michael Warburton. “Barefoot Running.” Sportscience. 2001.
- Joseph P. Laluya, DO, et. al. “Sports Medicine: Conservative Approach Benefits Athletes with Hallux Valgus.” Biomechanics. May 2000.
- Hakan Alfredson, MD, et. al. "Heavy-Load Eccentric Calf Muscle Training For the Treatment of Chronic Achilles Tendinosis." American Journal of Sports Medicine. May 1998.
- Steven Robbins and Edward Waked. “Hazard of Deceptive Advertising of Athletic Footwear.” British Journal of Sports Medicine. 1997.
- V. Sachithanandam and Benjamin Joseph. “The Influence of Footwear on the Prevalence of Flat Foot.” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1995.
- Steven E. Robbins and Gerard J. Gouw. “Athletic Footwear: Unsafe Due to Perceptual Illusions.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1991.
- Steven E. Robbins and Adel M. Hanna. “Running-Related Injury Prevention Through Barefoot Adaptations.” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1987.
- Phil Hoffmann, MD. "Conclusions Drawn from a Comparative Study of the Feet of Barefooted and Shoe-Wearing Peoples." The American Journal of Orthopedic Surgery. 1905.
- More medical journal articles are listed here: www.barefooters.org/medicine/
- Jon Messner. "Core Training for Distance Runners." 2014
- Jay Dicharry. "Anatomy for Runners: Unlocking Your Athletic Potential for Health, Speed, and Injury Prevention." 2012
- Bill Katovsky and Peter Larson. "Tread Lightly: Form, Footwear, and the Quest for Injury-Free Running." 2012
- Danner & Katherine Dreyer. "Chi Marathon." 2012
- Ashish Mukharji. “Run Barefoot Run Healthy.” 2011
- Michael Sandler. “Barefoot Running.” 2010
- Daniel Howell, PhD. “The Barefoot Book.” 2010
- Christopher McDougall. “Born to Run.” 2009
- Danny and Katherine Dreyer. “Chi Running.” 2009
- Natural Running Center, naturalrunningcenter.com
- Biomechanics of Foot Strikes & Applications to Running Barefoot or in Minimal Footwear, barefootrunning.fas.harvard.edu
- Society for Barefoot Living, www.barefooters.org
Magazine & Online Articles, Blogs
- "How Healthy Are Your Feet?" Introduction by Ray McClanahan, DPM. Natural Running Center. August 2013.
- "Rethink Traditional Assumptions When Choosing Running Shoes" by Adam Hodges, PhD. Alp Fitness, May 2013.
- "A Review of Correct Toes" by Damien Tougas. Toe Salad, Oct 2012.
- "Natural Solutions for Your Patients' Foot and Ankle Ailments" by Robyn Hughes, ND & Ray McClanahan, DPM. Dynamic Chiropractic Practice Insights, August 2012.
- "Correct Toes." National Geographic Aventure's Running Gear Guide, Summer 2012.
- "Correct Toes™ Toe Spacers" by Barbara Loomis, LMT, RES. Alignment Monkey, May 2012.
- “Recreating a Natural Foot: A Review of Correct Toes Toe Spacers” by Michael Roberts. The Fit Machine, Feb 2012.
- "Tackling The 10 Myths Of Barefoot Running" by Nicholas A. Campitelli, DPM, FACFAS. Podiatry Today, Jan 2012.
- “My Progress with Correct Toes + Minimal Shoes” by Dennis Claire, DPM. Natural Foot Health & Wellness, Dec 2011.
- “The Once and Future Way to Run” by Christopher McDougall. The New York Times, Nov 2011.
- “Toes and Foot Health” by Robyn Hughes, ND. Oct 2011.
- “The Importance of the Big Toe.” Two Rivers Treads.
- “Interview with Dr. McClanahan” by Kelsey Armstrong, DPM. Armstrong Podiatry and Sports Health Blog.
- “Reform School for Toes” by Sam Murphy. Jul 2011.
- "The Best Foot Pads" by Martin Hughes, DC. LiveStrong.com, May 2011.
- “Update Review-Correct Toes Spacers for Runners and Others with Foot Problems.” Sam’s Running, People, Places, and Things. Mar 2011.
- “Run Like a Child” by John Douillard, DC. LifeSpa.com, 2011.
- “Is the Key to Curing Plantar Fasciitis in Your Toes?” by Richard A. Lovett. Running Times, Apr 2010.
- “Much Ado About Minimalism” by Richard A. Lovett. Running Times, Apr 2010.
- "When it Comes to Footwear for Our Children, Are We Making Shoddy Choices?" by Robyn Hughes, ND. Our Growing Village, Mar 2010.
- “Study: Running Shoes Could Cause Joint Strain” by Rachael Rettner. Live Science, Jan 2010.
- "Can 'Correct Toes' Correct Your Feet?" by Michael Nirenberg, DPM. America's Podiatrist, Aug 2009.
- “Wiggling Their Toes at the Shoe Giants” by Amy Cortese. The New York Times, Aug 2009.
- “Barefoot Running May Be Better For You” by Joseph Mercola, DO. Mercola.com, Aug 2009.
- “Barefoot Nation: Wanna Run Faster and Stonger?” by Adrienne So. Willamette Week, May 2009.
- “The Painful Truth About Trainers: Are Running Shoes a Waste of Money?” by Christoper McDougall. Live Mag, Apr 2009.
- “You Walk Wrong” by Adam Sternbergh. New York Magazine, Apr 2008.
- “Take Off Your Shoes and Walk” by Simon J. Wikler, DSC.
- “Arch Support” by Ray McClanahan, DPM. Northwest Foot & Ankle.
In his 18 years as a podiatrist, Dr. Ray McClanahan has learned that most foot problems can be corr...